Written by Camilo H Rueda
This is a type of hydraulic system extremely common in mobile equipment, although itis widely used in industrial equipment.
Basically it is a system apparently simple used for rotational power transmission , since it consists of a pump that sends and receives oil to/from a hydraulic motor.
Once the shaft of the pump is turning by the prime mover, the pump sends flow to the motor through a line, then the motor shaft turns and returns the oil directly to the suction of the pump which resend it to the motor again, and so on indefinitely. Hence the name closed circuit or "closed loop"
As noted earlier, because physically this system seems simple that anyone can see is a pump and a motor, but there are several additional items to complete the system:
- Pre-charge pump, generally a small gear pump that is built in the same housing of the main pump. Used to replenish the oil lost in the main loop due to internal leaks inside the pump and the motor.
- Check valves (2) to help the flow coming from the charge pump to fill the suction side. There are two in the system because the main pump can switch ports to send flow to the motor into the other port to change its rotation.
- Relief valves in ports. To limit the pressure in each of the lines from the pump to the motor.
- Pre-charge Relief valve . Usually regulated between 100 and 500 psi depending on the type and manufacturer. Ensures that the return line of the motor (same suction of the pump) has a minimum positive pressure to prevent the cavitation phenomena.
Let's check out the next animation made by Poclain Hydraulics.
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